The Institute was established in 1949 pursuant to the Decree of the USSR Government, and in 2014 it celebrates its 65-th anniversary. The NIIR has considerably contributed into development of advanced info-communication technologies; the NIIR specialists perform up-to-date studies and develop advanced radio equipment and implement telecommunication projects.
• Scientific and engineering support for international activity of the Russian Communication Administration.
• Development of terrestrial and satellite equipment and radiocommunication, television and sound broadcasting systems, including monitoring and information security systems for the Russian communication networks.
• Spacecraft payload assembly and trials.
• Scientific and engineering forecasts and proposals to develop backgrounds for government scientific and engineering policy in the field of radiocommunications, TV and sound broadcasting.
• Development of scientific and engineering frameworks for radio spectrum management in the Russian Federation, including spectrum re-farming.
• Scientific and engineering, methodological and documentary support of activities to ensure electromagnetic compatibility between radio systems.
• Development of draft national standards for digital TV and radio broadcasting.
• Activities to confirm the compliance of communication equipment (certification, declaration).
1. Design and implementation of federal-wide systems and regional networks of digital broadcasting;
2. Development of on-board repeaters and terrestrial stations for satellite communication and broadcasting systems;
3. Feasibility analysis of the policy for radio spectrum management in the Russian Federation;
4. Research and technical support of international activities of the Russian communications Administration.
The Institute pays a lot of attention to the strengthening of the laboratory and production base, and their technological modernization. Among the FSUE NIIR achievements of the last period, it is necessary to highlight the creation of 3D Visualization Subsystem in FSUE NIIR. Mutually with NIIR Computing Center, 3D Visualization Subsystem forms the integrated software and hardware complex for data processing. FSUE NIIR has also built Test Center to test and assemble spacecraft payload modules. Automated system for project management is being built.
During FSUE NIIR participation in contracts on new FSS «Express-АМ5» and «Express-АМ6» satellites, the production and technology level has allowed FSUE NIIR to obtain and implement advanced world technologies in designing, manufacturing and assembling of spacecraft payloads.
Scientific potential of the Institute is enhancing in the following directions:
1. Integration with academic science (Integration with the Institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences, since 2006 NIIR is carrying out joint scientific studies with IRE RAS, PTI RAS and others);
2. Targeted personnel education (basic subdepartments of MTUCI and MPIT were established in FSUE NIIR in 2006). More than 40 students of these institutes have practical works in NIIR yearly; NIIR has Scientific Educational Centre as its structural unit.
3. NIIR’s experts actively take part in Study Groups of International Telecommunication Union (ITU): nearly 100 contributions and proposals were yearly developed and submitted to ITU World Radio Conferences and Assemblies.
FSUE NIIR is registered in the overall registry of defense industry complex organizations. The enterprise is also included into the registry of single suppliers of some military products. Accordingly, substantial part of the enterprise activity is related to a provision of national defense production.
One of the important activity lines is designing, manufacturing and testing of satellite communications, on-board repeaters. In this market one can observe processes of amalgamation of international corporations dealing with communication satellites, orbital delivery vehicles, ground auxiliary equipment, and satellite communication and TV broadcasting operators. The enterprise is closely cooperating with MDA of Canada, Thales Alenia Space and EADS Astrium of Europe. As a result of this international cooperation, the NIIR has implemented modern technologies in the field of payload designing, assembling and testing. The enterprise has also its own traditions in repeater designing, and in the last few years some technological processes for on-board equipment development were introduced, which are not weaker than foreign technologies.
FSUE NIIR is a subcontractor in designing and manufacturing of payload modules for «Express» spacecrafts in the interests of FSUE RSCC. Works for Federal Space Agency are continuing in order to develop satellite communications system to collect telemetry information during launches of vehicles from «Vostochny» cosmodrome which is currently under construction. Till 2017, new fixed, marine and mobile products for stringent operation conditions of the Extreme North will be developed and put into operation within the frameworks of research and development activities.
It was the NIIR that proposed to the RSCC to implement multi-beam antennas in different bands with frequency re-use. Based on such solutions, «Express-АМ4R», «Express-АМ5», «Express-АМ6» satellites are now produced, and advanced «Express-АМU1» satellite is ordered. In addition, the NIIR also proposed to install an experimental Ka-band multi-beam payload on board «Express-АМ5» and «Express-АМ6» spacecrafts. Nowadays these spacecrafts are basic for the deployment of Russian satellite system providing high-speed internet access.
One of the promising activity lines in space communications and broadcasting is development of small satellites, and NIIR already performs studies in this field. During last years some interesting proposals on layout of such satellites and corresponding systems were prepared for various customers. Unique feature of small satellites is a possibility to launch a cluster of such satellites using existing launch vehicles. Payload multi-beam antenna systems in widely used C-band and Ku-band additionally reduce low cost launching of small satellites to geostationary orbit. The proposed technical solutions allow additional number of active transponders and larger payload capacity due to multiple re-use of limited orbital and frequency resource. These solutions have ensured abrupt cost reduction of small satellites in comparison to a purchased in that time «Express-А» and first «Express-АМ» foreign spacecraft payloads.
Multi-beam payloads for small satellites were one of the leading developments for the Russian civil constellation of communication and broadcasting satellites according to the «Program-2015» developed by NIIR. Such satellites could be experimental or basic for introduction of new frequency bands and implementation of advanced satellite communication and broadcasting systems.
NIIR took active part in designing of national system for high-speed satellite communication in Ка-band (RSS-HSD Project). The Institute in cooperation with national research and development organizations has developed system project, carried out preliminary and engineering designing of key elements of satellite communication system and coordinated orbital positions for the project implementation.
Recently FSUE NIIR has started studies on new and very important and prospective development of alarm and rescue system for visitors caught by emergency at unfamiliar premises. In the case of emergency, the software installed in smartphone shows man’s location on the screen and informs of the way out by voice or visually on the screen.
This system could also be applied to ensure security, e.g. to position intruder on protected territory.
FSUE NIIR is actively participating in government program for transition to digital TV from its beginning. In 1998 Russian Goskomsvyaz has entrusted the NIIR at the earliest possible date to study in detail the possibility to begin implementation of terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in the Russian Federation. Based on the study, Scientific and Technical Council of Goskomsvyaz has adopted «The Concept of Developing Terrestrial Digital TV and Sound Broadcasting in the Russia», followed by Resolution of Goskomsvyaz Panel of 26 March 1999 «On the Concept of Developing Terrestrial Digital TV and Sound Broadcasting in the Russia». NIIR specialists have developed original equipment now used in networks delivering digital broadcasting multiplexes, as well as subscriber equipment serially manufactured by national enterprises. NIIR experts also prepared a section of «Geneva-06» Plan concerning Russia and neighbouring countries, which became a base for frequency plan of digital terrestrial TV broadcasting in the Russia, developed by the GRFC. NIIR elaborated frameworks and national standards on various issues of digital TV broadcasting.
After adoption of Federal Target-Purpose Program by the government «TV and radio broadcasting development in Russian Federation for 2009 – 2015», FSUE NIIR within the Program has completed the whole range of works, including in particular Complex Project «Development of Digital Broadcasting in the Russian Federation», developed for FSUE RTRS, which further became a basis for system projects of regional digital air TV broadcasting networks. FSUE NIIR has optimized frequency and territory plan (FTP) for the first multiplex of digital air broadcasting, and also substantial part of FTP optimization for the second multiplex. NIIR experts were the first who proposed new DVB-T2 standard for terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in the Russia, and the merit of NIIR is that this standard was further chosen to provide broadcasting in the Russia. Now works within the FTP are continuing.
Transition from analog to digital TV broadcasting is coming to the end. The World recognizes Russian Federation’s and in particular NIIR’s important role in the development of strategy, innovations, international standardization of digital TV broadcasting in the historical transition from analog to digital TV broadcasting. International studies and findings in this sphere has started in 1972 under the leadership of professor M. Krivosheev, Doctor of Technical Sciences, who fruitfully works at NIIR more than fifty years.
Study program on digital compression of TV signal was developed first. In the history of digital TV, it was a start of international consolidation and coordination of activities towards effective coding of TV signals to compress digital flow. Importance of implementation of the early proposed concept of compressed TV signal transmission on standard radio channels and ways of its implementation is particularly recognized.
M. Krivosheev’s contribution to the development of new methodology used to elaborate more than 150 recommendations received high international appreciation. Those recommendations finally became world and regional TV standards for TV centers, terrestrial and satellite TV broadcasting and communication systems and established the foundation for implementation of digital TV broadcasting in the Russia and worldwide.
Mr. Krivosheev, the academic consultant at the FSUE NIIR, pioneer of the up-to-date world television, has been assigned Honorary Chairman of SG6 (Broadcasting service) for many years, that is undoubtedly the highest appreciation from the international community to the NIIR and the Russian Administration.
For the start of the next study period in the development of multi-functional digital TV broadcasting, NIIR proposed a model of conceptually new technological platform. This platform is aimed at the complex development and integration of ITU achievements. Important distinctive feature of the platform is that its constituent parts are outcomes of international studies which have been far-sightedly started long before they are in the critical demand, under the initiative of M. Krivosheev, the Chairman of CCIR SG11 (ITU-R). There are: interactivity, digital multi-program 2D/3D TV broadcasting, ultra-high definition TV, video information systems (VIS), broadcasting roaming, ecological protection of viewers, interface with mobile communication and Internet, and others. By this, a vector for further progress of the most important component of the global information society was defined.
One of the key lines of the FSUE NIIR activity is participation in the international and regional communications organizations.
Active and fruitful work in international and regional organizations enhances the Russia’s prestige, increases its weight during elaboration of coordinated position on international cooperation issues in the field of ICT, as well as during bilateral cooperation with other communications administrations, intergovernmental and international nongovernmental organizations. At that, defending and promoting Russia’s positions in international high-level forums is often not only technical issue, but an outcome of interaction between foreign administrations and business structures. Therefore for effective promoting of Russia’s interests, it is necessary to have adequate human resource with professional competence and authority in the field of international communications regulation.
During many years, FSUE NIIR’ experts have been providing methodological support to the Russian Communications Administration in the field of telecommunications, holding elective posts both in working and higher bodies of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the European Conference of Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT), the Regional Commonwealth in the field of Communications (RСС) and in steering bodies of International Conferences and Forums.
This is the recognition of competence and qualification of the FSUE NIIR employees at the highest international level in the International Telecommunication Union.
Almost 70 employees of the FSUE NIIR participate in the work of the ITU Study Groups (SG) and Working Groups. They are chairman or vice-chairman in some SGs, therefore standards, resolutions and recommendations are adopted with their participation. The NIIR experts have greatly contributed to the decisions on mobile systems (IMT family of standards), DVB-T and DVB-T2 broadcasting standards, wireless access systems, fixed satellite and broadcasting satellite services, short range devices.
Now preparations for the World Radiocommunication Conference 2015 (WRC-15) are under way. The WRC-15 will decide on spectrum reallocation between radio services and allotment of frequency bands for the development of advanced communication technologies, improvement of procedures related to the radio frequency coordination, EMC.
The IMT-Advanced technology is the most discussed topic. Two important matters should be resolved when preparing to the Conference: determine the spectrum needs and differentiate them depending on frequency band (above and below 1 GHz). Now there are wide disagreements among experts even on the methodology for estimation of the needs. And there is no common understanding how the spectrum demand should be distributed between frequency bands and how to consider heterogeneous traffic which could be transmitted by networks using the technology. Frequency plans for different frequency bands are planned to be developed before WRC-15 and reflected in the relevant standards. In addition, key technical characteristics of IMT-Advanced base stations /user terminals will have to be identified, which will be used to evaluate technology compatibility in different candidate frequency bands. And for each proposed band there are some relevant and complex technical issues which are to be resolved in order to decide on the conditions of the IMT-Advanced usage.
WRC-15 also plans to finally resolve the issue of using VSAT earth stations on-board vessels (ESV) in the С-band and Ku-band. This technology has been using for a long time and now allows delivering communication services, including access to the Internet on-board vessels. Because of frequent interference to cost stations, usage of ESV stations was restricted– they had to be switched off when approaching to the land. Interconnection with GSM or LTE terrestrial networks is also impossible due to a long distance between a vessel and the land. There were issues related to EMC between ESV and satellite transponders: because of vessel movements accurate pointing of ship station to geostationary satellite seems to be difficult. In recent years, ESV technology was significantly improved, radiated power reduced as well as antenna side lobe level, and now it is possible to remove some restrictions and this opportunity will be considered by WRC-15.
New wireless avionics intra-communications (WAIC) technology is of the keen interest. For instance, Airbus A380 aircraft weighs approximately 270 tons and 2.5-3% of gross mass are wires. If wires are removed, than approximately 9 tons will be available for useful cargo such as fuel or luggage. WRC-15 will have to resolve a whole range of important technical tasks: from the selection of appropriate frequency band and identification of necessary frequency resource to specifications for using frequency bands on-board aircraft.
Another interesting technology is ultra-wideband automotive radars which have been operating in different frequency bands throughout the world. Their features are high accuracy of distance determination between vehicle and different objects as well as spectral power density reduction due to signal with the bandwidth above 1 GHz. WRC-15 will likely choose 77 GHz band for this technology, which will allow signal bandwidth up to 4 GHz with some constraints on allowable radiated power. Such radars can warn of a collision and provide active protection for a driver, as well as facilitate parking.
Dr. Valery Butenko, Director General, FSUE NIIR
Laureate of the Russian Government Award, Doctor of Engineering Sciences
From 2003 till present he is at the NIIR. Since 2006 he is Director General, FSUE NIIR.
Dr. V. Butenko is a prominent scientist and highly qualified specialist in the field of information and radio communication technologies, one of the pioneers in the international and legal support for frequency and orbital assignments to complex radio electronic systems.
Dr. V. Butenko conducted a cycle of fundamental studies: scientific and engineering methodology for the international and legal support, computer-aided assessment techniques and interoperability support, solutions for multi-criterion tasks, distribution of limited resources, draft concept of radio spectrum re-farming for the Russian Federation.
Dr. V. Butenko has contributed a lot into development of scientific frameworks for a new class of radio systems – automated radio navigation dispatch control systems for mobile and fixed objects. He administered pioneering development of the unique domestic system of conditional access to television and radio broadcasting networks.
Dr. V. Butenko actively participates in scientific and social activities. He is the President of National Radio Association, Head of Radio and Information Technologies Department in Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), and Head of Electromagnetic Compatibility and Radio Frequency Management Department in Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics (MTUCI).
Dr. V. Butenko is also greatly contributing to the work of National Communication Administration during Administrative and Plenipotentiary Conferences of International Telecommunication Union (ITU), CEPT and ITU Study Groups.
Dr. V. Butenko is the author of 196 scientific works including 3 monographs.